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====An A-Z Index of the Linux BASH command line====

~||{background:yellow}This is a list of the commands used in the [[Bash Bash shell]]. Puppy uses the [[Ash Ash shell]] up to v 1.0.2 which does not contain all of these commands. From version 1.0.3 (June 2005) these Bash commands are available.||

~if you add **SHELL=/bin/bash** to **/etc/profile**, rxvt and aterm will run bash automatically

~**alias :** Create an alias
~**[[awk]] :** Find and Replace text within file(s)

~**break :** Exit from a loop
~**builtin :** Run a shell builtin

~**cal :** Display a calendar
~**case :** Conditionally perform a command
~**cat :** Display the contents of a file
~**cd :** Change Directory
~**chgrp :** Change group ownership
~**chmod :** Change access permissions
~**chown :** Change file owner and group
~**chroot :** Run a command with a different root directory
~**cksum :** Print CRC checksum and byte counts
~**clear :** Clear terminal screen
~**cmp :** Compare two files
~**comm :** Compare two sorted files line by line
~**command :** Run a command - ignoring shell functions
~**continue :** Resume the next iteration of a loop
~**cp :** Copy one or more files to another location
~**cron :** Daemon to execute scheduled commands
~**crontab :** Schedule a command to run at a later time
~**csplit :** Split a file into context-determined pieces
~**cut :** Divide a file into several parts

~**date :** Display or change the date & time
~**dc :** Desk Calculator
~**dd :** Data Dump - Convert and copy a file
~**declare :** Declare variables and give them attributes
~**df :** Display free disk space
~**diff :** Display the differences between two files
~**diff3 :** Show differences among three files
~**dir :** Briefly list directory contents
~**dircolors :** Colour setup for `ls'
~**dirname :** Convert a full pathname to just a path
~**dirs :** Display list of remembered directories
~**du :** Estimate file space usage

~**echo :** Display message on screen
~**ed :** A line-oriented text editor (edlin)
~**egrep :** Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
~**eject :** Eject CD-ROM
~**enable :** Enable and disable builtin shell commands
~**env :** Display, set, or remove environment variables
~**eval :** Evaluate several commands/arguments
~**exec :** Execute a command
~**exit :** Exit the shell
~**expand :** Convert tabs to spaces
~**export :** Set an environment variable
~**expr :** Evaluate expressions

~**factor :** Print prime factors
~**false :** Do nothing, unsuccessfully
~**fdformat :** Low-level format a floppy disk
~**fdisk :** Partition table manipulator for Linux
~**fgrep :** Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
~**[[find]] :** Search for files that meet a desired criteria
~**fmt :** Reformat paragraph text
~**fold :** Wrap text to fit a specified width.
~**for :** Expand words, and execute commands
~**format :** Format disks or tapes
~**free :** Display memory usage
~**[[fsck]] :** Filesystem consistency check and repair.
~**function :** Define Function Macros

~**gawk :** Find and Replace text within file(s)
~**getopts :** Parse positional parameters
~**grep :** Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
~**groups :** Print group names a user is in
~**[[gzip]] :** Compress or decompress named file(s)

~**hash :** Remember the full pathname of a name argument
~**head :** Output the first part of file(s)
~**history :** Command History
~**hostname :** Print or set system name

~**id :** Print user and group id's
~**if :** Conditionally perform a command
~**import :** Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
~**info :** Help info
~**install :** Copy files and set attributes

~**join :** Join lines on a common field

~**kill :** Stop a process from running

~**less :** Display output one screen at a time
~**let :** Perform arithmetic on shell variables
~**ln :** Make links between files
~**local :** Create variables
~**locate :** Find files
~**logname :** Print current login name
~**logout :** Exit a login shell
~**lpc :** Line printer control program
~**lpr :** Off line print
~**lprint :** Print a file
~**lprintd :** Abort a print job
~**lprintq :** List the print queue
~**lprm :** Remove jobs from the print queue
~**ls :** List information about file(s)

~**m4 :** Macro processor
~**man :** Help manual
~**mkdir :** Create new folder(s)
~**mkfifo :** Make FIFOs (named pipes)
~**mknod :** Make block or character special files
~**more :** Display output one screen at a time
~**mount :** Mount a file system
~**mtools :** Manipulate MS-DOS files
~**mv :** Move or rename files or directories

~**nice :** Set the priority of a command or job
~**nl :** Number lines and write files
~**nohup :** Run a command immune to hangups

~**passwd :** Modify a user password
~**paste :** Merge lines of files
~**pathchk :** Check file name portability
~**popd :** Restore the previous value of the current directory
~**pr :** Convert text files for printing
~**printcap :** Printer capability database
~**printenv :** Print environment variables
~**printf :** Format and print data
~**ps :** Process status
~**pushd :** Save and then change the current directory
~**pwd :** Print Working Directory

~**quota :** Display disk usage and limits
~**quotacheck :** Scan a file system for disk usage
~**quotactl :** Set disk quotas

~**ram :** ram disk device
~**rcp :** Copy files between two machines.
~**read :** read a line from standard input
~**readonly :** Mark variables/functions as readonly
~**remsync :** Synchronize remote files via email
~**return :** Exit a shell function
~**rm :** Remove files
~**rmdir :** Remove folder(s)
~**rpm :** Remote Package Manager
~**[[rsync]] :** Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)

~**screen :** Terminal window manager
~**sdiff :** Merge two files interactively
~**sed :** Stream Editor
~**select :** Accept keyboard input
~**seq :** Print numeric sequences
~**set :** Manipulate shell variables and functions
~**shift :** Shift positional parameters
~**shopt :** Shell Options
~**shutdown :** Shutdown or restart linux
~**sleep :** Delay for a specified time
~**sort :** Sort text files
~**source :** Run commands from a file `.'
~**split :** Split a file into fixed-size pieces
~**su :** Substitute user identity
~**sum :** Print a checksum for a file
~**symlink :** Make a new name for a file
~**sync :** Synchronize data on disk with memory

~**tac :** Concatenate and write files in reverse
~**tail :** Output the last part of files
~**tar :** Tape ARchiver
~**tee :** Redirect output to multiple files
~**test :** Evaluate a conditional expression
~**time :** Measure Program Resource Use
~**times :** User and system times
~**touch :** Change file timestamps
~**top :** List processes running on the system
~**traceroute :** Trace Route to Host
~**trap :** Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
~**tr :** Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
~**true :** Do nothing, successfully
~**tsort :** Topological sort
~**tty :** Print filename of terminal on stdin
~**type :** Describe a command

~**ulimit :** Limit user resources
~**umask :** Users file creation mask
~**umount :** Unmount a device
~**unalias :** Remove an alias
~**uname :** Print system information
~**unexpand :** Convert spaces to tabs
~**uniq :** Uniquify files
~**units :** Convert units from one scale to another
~**unset :** Remove variable or function names
~**unshar :** Unpack shell archive scripts
~**until :** Execute commands (until error)
~**useradd :** Create new user account
~**usermod :** Modify user account
~**users :** List users currently logged in
~**uuencode :** Encode a binary file
~**uudecode :** Decode a file created by uuencode

~**v :** Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
~**vdir :** Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')

~**watch :** Execute/display a program periodically
~**wc :** Print byte, word, and line counts
~**whereis :** Report all known instances of a command
~**which :** Locate a program file in the user's path.
~**while :** Execute commands
~**who :** Print all usernames currently logged in
~**whoami :** Print the current user id and name (`id -un')

~**xargs :** Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
~**yes :** Print a string until interrupted

==Using commands==
~~**. :** Period, Run commands from a file
~~**# :** Comment / Remark

~**Shell scripts**

~~start with:

~~open xterminal (rxvt) and run console program (midnight commander)
~~xterm -e mc

~Bash can process command lines in sophisticated ways, doing complex string substitution etc.

==Also on the Wiki==
~[[Shell Shells]]

==Related Webpages==
~[[ A to Z of Bash commands]]

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